The graphene is a substance which has a single-layer crystal lattice of carbon atoms, which is unusual since it is different from all of the materials of its kind. Several researchers have identified a way of making this substance, which allows them to use it in various fields and especially for the high-speed electronic devices.
Graphene is defined as a one atom thin sheet of carbon atoms arranged in a Hexagonal format or a flat monolayer of carbon atoms that are tightly packed into a 2D honeycomb lattice.
In October 2010, two University of Manchester (U.K.) scientists, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novolselov, were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for their research on graphene. Graphene is a one-atom-thick sheet of carbon whose strength, flexibility, and electrical conductivity have opened up new horizons for high-energy particle physics research and electronic, optical, and energy applications.
Graphene oxide, a single-atomic-layered material made by reacting graphite powders with strong oxidizing agents, has the ability to easily convert into graphene a low-cost carbon-based transparent and flexible electronics.
Graphene oxide has been known in the scientific world for more than a century and was largely described as hydrophilic, or attracted to water. These graphene oxide sheets behave like surfactants, the chemicals in soap and shampoo that make stains disperse in water.
1. Graphene sheets stack to form graphite with an interplanar spacing of 0.335 nm, which means that a stack of 3 million sheets would be only one millimeter thick.
2. Graphene is a Zero Gap Semiconductor. So it has a high electron mobility at room temperature. It’s a Superconductor. Electron transfer is 100 times faster then Silicon.
3. Graphene has a record breaking strength of 200 times greater than steel, with a tensile strength of 130GPa.
4. Graphene can be used to create circuits that are almost superconducting, potentially speeding electronic components by as much as 1000 times.
5. Graphene electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries could reduce recharge times from two hours to about 10 minutes.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) are two other potential routes to Graphene growth.
New devices like Touch screens, Micro Displays and Monitors
Chip Making, Circuit Designs
Micro Fuel Cells
Air Bag Deployment Systems and Gyroscopes in Car Electronic Stability Control
The process of duplicating an existing component, subassembly, or product, without the aid of drawings, documentation, or computer model is known as reverse engineering.
Need For Reverse Engineering:
The original manufacturer of a product no longer produces a product
There is inadequate documentation of the original design
The original manufacturer no longer exists, but a customer needs the product
The original design documentation has been lost or never existed
Some bad features of a product need to be designed out. For example, excessive wear might indicate where a product should be improved
To strengthen the good features of a product based on long-term usage of the product
To analyze the good and bad features of competitors’ product
To explore new avenues to improve product performance and features
To gain competitive benchmarking methods to understand competitor’s products and develop better products
The original CAD model is not sufficient to support modifications or current manufacturing methods
The original supplier is unable or unwilling to provide additional parts
The original equipment manufacturers are either unwilling or unable to supply replacement parts, or demand inflated costs for sole-source parts
To update obsolete materials or antiquated manufacturing processes with more current, less-expensive technologies
Process Of Reverse Engineering:
Identify the system’s components and their interrelationships
Create representations of the system in another form or a higher level of abstraction
Create the physical representation of that system
Important Points To remember Before to Start Reverse Engineering:
Reverse engineering enables the duplication of an existing part by capturing the component’s physical dimensions, features, and material properties. Before attempting reverse engineering, a well-planned life-cycle analysis and cost/benefit analysis should be conducted to justify the reverse engineering projects. Reverse engineering is typically cost effective only if the items to be reverse engineered reflect a high investment or will be reproduced in large quantities. Reverse engineering of a part may be attempted even if it is not cost effective, if the part is absolutely required and is mission-critical to a system.
Product Development By CAD Integrated Reverse Engineering Concepts:
Reverse engineering of mechanical parts involves acquiring three-dimensional position data in the point cloud using laser scanners or computed tomography (CT). Representing geometry of the part in terms of surface points is the first step in creating parametric surface patches. A good polymesh is created from the point cloud using reverse engineering software. The cleaned-up polymesh, NURBS (Non-uniform rational B-spline) curves, or NURBS surfaces are exported to CAD packages for further refinement, analysis, and generation of cutter tool paths for CAM. Finally, the CAM produces the physical part.
Contact & Non-Contact (laser) Scanning
Deviation Analysis of physical part with CAD Model
This software makes the process of creating parametric CAD models from real world parts faster and easier by utilizing a design process and user interface that are instantly familiar to CAD users.
Geomagic Studio transforms 3D scan data and polygon meshes into accurate 3D digital models for reverse engineering, product design, rapid prototyping and analysis.
RevWorks® enhances the state of the art for CAD-Driven Reverse Engineering™. In linking SolidWorks to your 3D digitizer or coordinate measuring machine (CMM), RevWorks opens the door to greatly enhanced productivity.
The standard in reverse engineering for SolidWorks, allowing users to create complex 2D and 3D shapes, with a Romer, Faro, Baces, or MicroScribe Digitizer/Portable CMM.
Rhinoceros NURBS Modeling for Windows:
Rhino can create, edit, analyze, and translate NURBS curves, surfaces, and solids in Windows and offers full support for all 3D Digitizers and Portable CMMs.
Reverse Engineering Inspection Software:
The first hand-held metrology application. Installed on an Apple iPhone or iPod touch, MobiGage uses wireless communication to manage data collection from one or more MicroScribes linked to a MobiBox Silver interface
PowerINSPECT from Delcam
This software leads the way in today’s market by delivering a complete CAD-based inspection solution.
Rapidform XOV is the ideal solution for inspecting parts with a 3D scanner.
Geomagic Qualify enables fast, accurate, graphical comparisons between digital reference models and as-built parts for first-article inspection, production inspection and supplier quality
Applications Of Reverse Engineering:
Reverse engineering is very common in such diverse fields as software engineering, entertainment, automotive, consumer products, microchips, chemicals, electronics, and mechanical designs. For example, when a new machine comes to market, competing manufacturers may buy one machine and disassemble it to learn how it was built and how it works. A chemical company may use reverse engineering to defeat a patent on a competitor’s manufacturing process. In civil engineering, bridge and building designs are copied from past successes so there will be less chance of catastrophic failure. In software engineering, good source code is often a variation of other good source code.
In some situations, designers give a shape to their ideas by using clay, plaster, wood, or foam rubber, but a CAD model is needed to enable the manufacturing of the part. As products become more organic in shape, designing in CAD may be challenging or impossible. There is no guarantee that the CAD model will be acceptably close to the sculpted model. Reverse engineering provides a solution to this problem because the physical model is the source of information for the CAD model. This is also referred to as the part-to-CAD process.
Another reason for reverse engineering is to compress product development times. In the intensely competitive global market, manufacturers are constantly seeking new ways to shorten lead-times to market a new product. Rapid product development (RPD) refers to recently developed technologies and techniques that assist manufacturers and designers in meeting the demands of reduced product development time. For example, injection-molding companies must drastically reduce the tool and die development times. By using reverse engineering, a three-dimensional product or model can be quickly captured in digital form, re-modeled, and exported for rapid prototyping/tooling or rapid manufacturing.